Service Design

Jobs To Be Done Matrix

I have been pretty vocal in the past about using Value Stream Mapping, Value Stream Mapping should be left on the Shop Floor, and along with a couple other blog posts, Shaping your Customers Vision and Kill the Sales and Marketing Funnel. I think these types of tools lead us down a precarious path when used in sales and marketing. The approaches prematurely foresees a solution for the customer without ever understanding their needs.

In the Job To Be Done Thinking created by Tony Ulwick (What Customers Want), Ulwick claims that these three distinct outcomes are what organizations need to know in their marketing practices. Expanding on them….

  • Jobs (to be Done) are the tasks or activities that customers are trying to get done
  • Outcomes are what customers are trying to achieve
  • Constraints something that may prevent a customer from using a product or service

If you would like to learn more about JTBD thinking, I would recommend following Mike Boysen’s blog, Effective CRM. In one of his past blog posts, The Customer Process: The Five Things You Need To Know Now, he discusses the use and importance of Mapping. Many might seem a direct contrast to my above thoughts. The problem that I have always had is that all this mapping and journey stuff has typically been done without the customer involvement and/or a method to validate the assumptions we make. How I solved it presently for myself is with an old tool, Logframe Matrix that I have waffled using for a decade or so. I had first used it working with Non-profits and later revived it as I worked on some outcome mapping tactics. A quick description of the process:

A LogFrame Matrix is a document that outlines the key features that lead to a project achieving its goal. A LogFrame consists of a 4 columns and 4 rows.

  • The first column represents the hierarchy of activities to outcomes that needs to occur for the project to succeed.
  • The second column represents the indicators that are appropriate measures of whether the activities, outputs or outcomes have been achieved.
  • The third column represents the data source or means to verify the indicator.
  • The last column outlines the assumptions that need to hold true for that particular activity, outcome or purpose to occur.

LogframeThis reminds me somewhat of a SIPOC (Suppliers – Inputs – Process – Outputs – Customers). The SIPOC offers a high-level view of the process, and I always recommend using before the mapping process begins. However, the LogFrame could be used to validate the steps of a Customer Journey Map, after the mapping event and as we put our findings into action. It allows us to test our assumptions and put some granularity to our mapping process. I did an outline based on how a Job To Be Done LogFrame is viewed.

Job To Be Done

The objectives, of course, would look a little different. A short description follows:

Who the Customer Wants to Be: Michael Schrage, author of Serious Play, published a book taking these concepts one step further. Who Do You Want Your Customers to Become? challenges us to take our value proposition of use to a longer term growth platform. He dares us not only to have a corporate vision statement, but a customer vision statement saying that our future depends on their future. He phrases all this in something he calls “The Ask.” I discuss this concept in more detail in a blog post, Shaping your Customers Vision. When we flip this thought to Job To Be Done Thinking it allows us to have that impact statement or that larger goal that our customer is striving to achieve.

Job To Be Done:  JTBD is broken down into a couple of components. The Main jobs would describe the tasks that customers want to accomplish, and the Related tasks are what they want to accomplish in conjunction with the main tasks. They can be further broken down into social, emotional and functional aspects. Depending on the complexity, we could make a separate LogFrame for those components but you can have separate multiple Jobs to Be Done on each LogFrame. Since, I usually start with Post-it-Notes, I sometimes will color-code them based on the social, emotional and functional aspects. I will also keep the color-coding for the remaining two steps if needed.

Outcomes: The specific results of the activities ? used as milestones to what is being accomplished during the process. these remain the same concept though I may have current, intermediate and long-term outcomes.

Activities: The actual tasks to produce the outcomes. This is usually a high-level view and can be turned into a project plan or a Kanban board for execution.

I am in the process of creating a generic outline to follow in more detail, but this is just a starting point. What are your thoughts? Does this add some opportunity for better measurement and verification? Could you monitor and evaluate your efforts better this way?

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The Four Forces of a Customer Decision

A force is defined as a push or pull that changes an object’s state of motion or causes the object to deform. In nature, there are four fundamental forces (courtesy of the University of Tenn):

  1. The strong interaction is very strong but very short-ranged. It acts only over ranges of order 10-13 centimeters and is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is basically attractive, but can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances.
  2. The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the repulsion between like electrical charges or the interaction of bar magnets. It is long-ranged but much weaker than the strong force. It can be attractive or repulsive, and acts only between pieces of matter carrying electrical charge.
  3. he weak force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. It has a very short range and, as its name indicates, it is very weak.
  4. The gravitational force is weak, but very long ranged. Furthermore, it is always attractive and acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source.

Thus, although gravitation is extremely weak, it always wins over cosmological distances and, therefore, is the most important force for the understanding of the large-scale structure and evolution of the Universe.

In many Job –To-Be Done-Frameworks I see the mention of the Four Forces affecting a customer’s decision-making process. Not sure exactly who to contribute it to though I first ran across it in the Progress Making Forces Diagram by Chris Spiek. These four forces are:

  1. The Push of the Current Situation
  2. The Pull of the New Solution
  3. The Anxiety of the New Solution
  4. The Allegiance to the Current Situation

In the forces, you have the top two promoting a new choice and the bottom two blocking change. I keep struggling with thinking and prioritizing between the two. Even separating them to me there is not one clear cut winner. If I had to pick one, I would say the anxiety of the New Solution? And You?

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Architecture is about Visceral Emotions

I  seldom post Ted Videos anymore to my blog but this video speaks to how the interaction between user and designer (this time an architect) in something as massive as a building has changed. A wonderful description that I hope you enjoy  as much as I did.

An excerpt for the video:

Because it doesn’t matter if a cow builds our buildings or a robot builds our buildings. It doesn’t matter how we build, it matters what we build. Architects already know how to make buildings that are greener and smarter and friendlier. We’ve just been waiting for all of you to want them. And finally, we’re not on opposite sides anymore. Find an architect, hire an architect, work with us to design better buildings, better cities, and a better world, because the stakes are high. Buildings don’t just reflect our society, they shape our society down to the smallest spaces: the local libraries, the homes where we raise our children, and the walk that they take from the bedroom to the bathroom.

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Chesbrough on Open Services Innovation 0

Henry Chesbrough is a Professor at ESADE and father of the term ‘open innovation’, one of the concepts behind the creation of ESADE Creapolis. He is currently Adjunct Professor and Executive Director of the Center for Open Innovation at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley.His research topics include: innovation in organizations; the structuring and management of research and its development; management of intellectual property; technology based on benefits of venture capital companies; the comparative evolution of high-tech industries in the United States, Japan and Western Europe.

Chesbrough is one of my favorite authors. I hang on most of his statements. The attached video covers these points.   

Open Services Innovation

  • Open Services Innovation
  • Rethinking your business as a service company
  • Co-create with customers
  • The value of openness
  • New business platforms and business models

About TEDx, x = independently organized event: In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience.

Discussing Outcomes versus Features and Benefits 0

Robin Lawton book, Creating a Customer-Centered Culture: Leadership in Quality, Innovation, and Speed offers some valuable insights even though it was written 20-years ago. In a past podcast, I asked Robin about discussing outcomes versus features and benefits.

Related Podcast and Transcription: How Do You Listen to Your Customer?

An excerpt from the podcast:

Rob Lawton:  You got it. As soon as we do that, what happens is that it opens the door to innovation. We can go two directions. We can say, “Ah. If we know the outcome is X, and users or customers want it, and this is the product we’ve been giving them to get there. Are there things we should do to improve that product?’ If so, we’re going to use what I call convergent thinking. That is; we’re going to take an existing product, and we’re going to make some kind of either incremental or radical change in that product. But, we don’t significantly change the product as a concept in itself. We still have that particular product. We may have a buggy whip, for example, that doesn’t have a flexible end on it. It’s actually got a battery in it, and it buzzes. You hold it against the horse, and it buzzes, and that causes the job to occur. We’ve still got a buggy whip, but we’ve made incremental improvement in it.

On the other hand, we could use divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is focused on outcome. We could say, ‘Shoot. The buggy whip is a product, but what other products might achieve the same or better outcome for the customers?’ That’s what we want to do. If we think about innovations that we know of, I’ll give you one that’s a great example of how focus on outcomes can actually explain the success of certain companies. All of us are familiar with the iPhone from Apple. The iPhone started with the iPod. The name of the product itself is very important because there was no history on that name, iPod. The beauty of it is that it did not cause us to think of a specific thing when it was introduced. That meant we didn’t have intellectual, emotional, or experiential history regarding this brand or product. It’s not that the product didn’t exist in some form prior, because the iPod is simply a mp3 player. If we think about the iPod, then as a product, and we want to connect to outcome, we say, ‘Can we identify what the customer’s desired outcome was, regarding the iPod?’ In a second here, I’m going to tell you what it is.

Before we do that, let’s talk about the predecessor for mp3 players. We know that iPod springs from that. It’s a kind of mp3 player. Prior to the mp3 player, we had a company called Sony that had a product called Walkmans. The Walkman actually addressed the same desired outcome as the iPod. Prior to the Walkman, there was the boombox. All of these are products that have exactly the same outcome wanted by customers. That is, “feeling like I’m there.” That outcome, feeling like I’m there, like all outcomes at the strategic and macro level does not change. They are stable over time. If we think of all the things, customers care about; this is the only one that doesn’t change over time. In our world, when we have change everywhere, we desperately would like to find something that doesn’t change. This is it. Desired outcomes don’t change over time.

What the iPod did was enabled the experience of being there to be far more inclusive, because of what else the iPod brought to the party, which is iTunes. There’s a whole other set of things we could talk about. That’s how we connect products and outcomes. We can ask ourselves, and we should, ‘Is the product today the best product we could provide for the outcomes we have uncovered those end users of this product want to achieve?’ If the answer is no, then we need to pursue that and say, ‘Great. What else could we provide as a product?’ In fact, if we eliminated this product and started from scratch, what would we create?

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An Instruction Manual for Innovation 0

David Hamme enjoys helping leaders uncover opportunities, examine problems from new angles, and executing the plan to bring them to fruition. His goal is to make your life easier and supercharge your performance.  His recent book, Customer Focused Process Innovation: Linking Strategic Intent to Everyday Execution is compilation of his thoughts and processes that he uses. Dave-Hamme

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